CHAPTER 10: PERSON-SITUATION INTERACTIONIST ASPECTS
We are the Best Company Offering Online Assignment Help Services
CHAPTER 10: PERSON-SITUATION INTERACTIONIST ASPECTS CHAPTER 10: PERSON-SITUATION INTERACTIONIST ASPECTSI. Few people are totally honest or dishonest; then what is personality? How does it affect behavior?A. Lewinâs equation: B = f (P, E) [behavior is a function of personality and environment]B. Allport believed we have consistent patterns in predispositions, but behavior is manifest uniquely in each situationC. Murray posited internal âneedsâ and external âpressâ which worked in concertII. Henry Stack SullivanA. Importance of âchumsâ and adolescent psychosocial threats of loneliness, isolation, rejection1. Psychological health determined to large degree by reactions of othersB. We experience similar social situations over and over1. Drew on G. H. Meadâs ideas of the âsocial selfâ and Sapirâs views of the importance of cultureC. We become different âpeopleâ in different situations; the situation elicits thepersonality (note the âillusion of individualityâ which describes belief in just one âpersonalityâ)Ill. Motivation and goals: Henry MurrayA. Murray is considered a primary founder of the interactionist approach to personalityB. Combined ideas of unconscious motivations with those of environmental pressures and traitsC. Because he focused on the richness of life and saw âpersonalityâ as a dynamic process, he called his theory a âpersonological systemâ1. internal needs and motivations2. Environmental pressD. Typical combinations of needs and presses termed âthemaâ1. Measured with the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)E. The work of McAdams provides a modern example of Murrayâs influence1. Studies the âwhole personâ through biographiesIV. OtherA. Lewin’s contemporaneous causation (behavior is caused at that momentas a function of a variety of influencesB. Ideas of behaviorists, such as Skinner, were adapted by Murray as he incorporated situational influences into his theoryC. Humanistic notions of internal motivations toward creativity and self-fulfillmentV. Modern interactionist approaches: Walter MischelA. Mischel’s 1968 argument that behavior varies so much by situation that the concept of personality traits makes little sense1. Correlations of behavior with personality or of behavior across situations &re generally .30 or lessa. assumes a simple model of the personality-behavior relationshipb. assumes that a correlation of .30 is âsmallâB. More recently, Mischel has looked at individual differences in meanings people give tc stimuli and reinforcements (called âstrategiesâ)1. Competencies: abilities and knowledge2. Encoding strategies: schemas and mechanisms used to3. Expectancies: what we expect to happen in response to efforts/behaviors4. PlansVI. Other modern developments from interactionist perspectiveA. Implicit personality theory1. Observers tend to make attributions to personality; actors are more likely to make situational attributions2. Stereotypes help simplify the world3. People tend to overestimate the consistency of their own behaviorsB. The power of situations: sometimes they are so powerful that they override personality effects (e.g. reactions to a fire in a crowded theater)C. Trait Relevance1. All traits may not be equally relevant to all peopleD. Consistency within situations: problem of how to classify situations– where would we expectbehavioral consistency? E. Consistency averaged across situations 1. Reliability issues (is one sample behavior a reliable indicator of personality?) 2. Appropriateness of situation for being associated with particular trait 3. Averaging cross-situational behaviors helps to deal with both of these issues F. Personal vs. social situations; personal vs. social selves 1. Field independence: characteristic which enables one to judge an object, disregarding background influences (in social situations, such person may act more independently) 2. Field dependence: characteristic which forces one to rely on background influences to make judgments (in social situations, such person may conform to situational demands) 3. Low self-monitoring (less sensitive to reactions and expectations of others, so may show more consistent behavior across situations) vs.High self-monitoring (more sensitive to social influence that varies across situations, thus more difficult to see personality) 4. Social identity vs. personal identity G. Seeking and creating situations 1. We seek situations that reinforce self-conceptions, making for more âpersonality consistencyâ 2. Consistency also results in part from our conscious efforts 3. Some situations are âstrongerâ and exert greater influence than âweakâ situationsâ H. Time: Longitudinal data necessary to understand how personality develops over time 1. Block and Blockâs longitudinal study at Berkeley 2. Caspi’s study of the âlife courseâ and the individual’s creation of the life course through choosing environments in which to live and through interpreting situations 3. Recent research suggests good (but not perfect) personality stability across adulthood 4. Termanâs Life-Cycle Study I. Readiness 1. Each experience has its effects in the context of previous experience 2. We are more affected by certain environments at certain times of our lives 3. Both of these concepts come into play in Lorenzâs ideas of âcritical periodsâ and âimprintingâa. Lorenzâs ideas focused on critical developmental periods, but we may also imagine more transient âcritical periodsâ or times of âreadinessâ (based on circadian rhythms, etc.)Copyright Â© 2003 Pearson Education, Inc.CHAPTER 12:I. Disease-Prone Personalities A. Fields of psychosomatic medicine, behavioral medicine, and health psychology focus on how the mind and body are interconnected. B. Personality has been found to be related to health/illness through a variety of mechanisms. 1. Health Behaviors: certain personality characteristics are associated with various healthy and unhealthy behaviors (i.e. smoking, alcohol, risky behaviors, etc.) â for example, Type T personality (thrill seekers) are the type more likely to engage in risky behaviors. 2. The Sick Role: certain people respond to stressful life events by âplayingâ the sick role (how you think society thinks you should behave) 3. Disease-Caused Personality Changes: there can be physiological reasons for personality change like Stroke, Alzheimerâs Disease, etc. 4. Personality Disorders: Stress may contribute to the development of personality disorders such as Borderline personality disorder, anti- social personality disorder. 5. Diathesis-Stress ModelII. Personality and Coronary-Proneness A. The Type A Behavior Pattern was proposed to represent a set of traits such as hostility, competitiveness, time urgency, and extreme ambition, that leaves an individual vulnerable to cardiovascular diseases. III. The Human Termites A. The Terman Life-Cycle study was initiated in 1921-1922 to investigate the effects of personality on health over a lifetime. B. Conscientiousness (childhood social dependability) was found to predict longevity. V. The Self-Healing Personality A. The Influences of Humanistic and Existential Aspects on Understanding Self-Healing 1. Considering positive aspects of human functioning 2. Two types of self healing personality: a. Gung-Ho Personality: spontaneous, fun-loving, hard-working, actively seek out excitement, highly extroverted. b. Calm, more relaxed type 3. Self healers tend to achieve a balance that is appropriate for themselves. 4. May also in?