U9d1-60 s1 – ethics: protection of human participants – see detail


Read the introduction to this unit, Ethical Issues in Research. This will introduce you to the ethics of academic and professional writing, as well as the ethics of conducting research with human participants.


Plagiarism can be defined as “tak[ing] and us[ing] as one’s own the writings or ideas of another” ( American

Heritage Dictionary , 1981). Plagiarism includes not only copying verbatim, but also rephrasing the ideas of

another without properly acknowledging the source. Most students and researchers recognize that quoting

from a reference without crediting the author or authors constitutes plagiarism. They also understand that

plagiarism covers instances when a source is referenced, but inadequately referenced. For example, a student

or researcher references a source, but then transcribes passages from the source verbatim without quotation

marks. However, inadequate referencing covers more than problems with quotations. Three instances warrant

further discussion.

Paraphrasing Properly

First, a learner or researcher might reference a source and then change several words within a paragraph in an

attempt to paraphrase the author. True paraphrasing involves more effort than this. Paraphrasing is a process of

reading, synthesizing, interpreting, and summarizing another author’s work. Changing a few words does not

meet the standard for paraphrasing. To avoid plagiarism, you must either quote directly, referencing the

author’s name, date, and page number; or paraphrase in your own words, while referencing the original source,

including author’s name and the publication date.

Borrowing Ideas

Second, plagiarism covers instances in which a learner or researcher borrows the ideas of another author

without giving adequate credit. Ideas include how an author organizes a subject matter and how he or she

explains or interprets a subject matter. While these cases can be harder to detect, the following example might

help clarify what this type of plagiarism can entail: a researcher might organize the presentation of his or her

literature review using the topic headings provided by another author. Even if the other author is referenced

somewhere in the paper, the researcher is obligated to credit the categorization of the topic to that author as


Crediting All Authors

Finally, plagiarism encompasses cases in which multiple people have contributed to the writing of a research

report but not all are credited for their contributions. APA standards mandate that all authors be listed in the

order of their contribution. The input of other people should be included in a footnote or endnote.

You are encouraged to review the University Academic Honesty Policy on iGuide to understand the University’s

position on plagiarism. The Maintaining Academic Honesty iGuide page offers helpful information on how to

write honestly and with integrity.

You can also learn more about plagiarism through the Internet. The following Web sites, courtesy of the

University faculty member Barry Persky, provide a good starting point:

• Plagiarism and the Web.

Ethical Issues in Research

• Plagiarism in Colleges in USA.

• Plagiarism: What It is and How to Recognize and Avoid It.

• Web Center for Social Research Methods. Read the following sections:

◦ Language of Research.

◦ Ethics in Research.

◦ Evaluation Research.

Protection of Human Participants in Research

There is a long and difficult history associated with the use of human participants in research, and abuses and

mistakes have led to the establishment of an agreed-upon set of principles under which research must be

conducted. This covenant is laid out in a nationally acknowledged document known as the Belmont Report.

There are three major principles outlined in the Belmont Report:

• Respect for persons.

• Beneficence.

• Justice.

These principles are the basis for U.S. Federal Law 45 CFR 46, which provides guidelines for everything from the

way participants are recruited, to the informed consent process and the assurance of confidentiality that must

be provided for research participants.

To uphold the principles established in the Belmont Report and enforce U.S. Federal Law 45 CFR 46, every

institution involved in research, including Research University, has what is known as an Institutional Review Board

(IRB). The IRB is charged with reviewing all research conducted at the institution or by those affiliated with that

institution to ensure it complies with the law.


Plagiarism . (1981). American heritage dictionary of the English language (p. 1001). Boston, MA: Houghton-


Leedy, P. D., & Ormrod, J. E. (2013). Practical research: Planning and design (10th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.


To successfully complete this learning unit, you will be expected to:

1. Discuss vulnerable populations in research.

2. Explicate the level of risk in research.

3. Describe link between sound research design and lowering risk in research.

Use your Leedy and Ormrod text to complete the following:

• Read Chapter 5, “Writing the Research Proposal,” pages 116–135.

• Review Chapter 4, “Planning Your Research Project,” pages 74–115.

Use the Internet to complete the following:

• Read the Belmont Report.

iGuide pages

• Read the Research University Academic Honesty Policy.

• Revisit a Universities Dissertation Research at Research iGuide page.

• Read the Institutional Review Board iGuide page.

• Read the IRB discussion on vulnerable populations, located on the Topic Selection iGuide page.

Library Search

Locate one article about a vulnerable population (as described in IRB guidelines) consideration of research in

the Research Library or through searching other research databases.

Record the persistent link for the article found within the library databases. The persistent link is different

from the URL in the browser window. Use this guide to learn where to locate your articles’ persistent links:

Persistent Links and DOIs.

Read the article in preparation for this unit’s discussions.

Use Finding Articles for Your Discussion Post to learn how to locate articles within the library databases. This

guide will walk you through the basic steps of accessing the library databases and creating a search strategy

to find articles.

Optional Readings

• Universities IRB A to Z Handbook.

• In the Leedy and Ormrod text, Chapter 12, “Writing the Final Research Report,” pages 310–332. This

chapter explains how researchers write a report of their research that they might submit for

publication. It explains how most published articles are organized, and includes sections on academic

integrity and proper citations and references.

[u09d1] Unit 9 Discussion 1 



Discussion Participation Scoring Guide.

APA Style and Format.

Research Library.

Institutional Review Board.

Persistent Links and DOIs.

Topic Selection.

Using the article on vulnerable populations that you located in this unit’s studies, in the Library Search

section, complete the following:

• Identify the vulnerable population that is the subject of the article and, using the materials from the

Universities IRB, explain why the population is vulnerable.

• Discuss the level of risk in the research that was conducted (minimal versus more than minimal).

• Integrating materials from Universities Universities IRB and other readings, discuss how the level of

risk can be lowered, or was lowered if the risk is minimal.

• Discuss how the soundness of research methodology relates to minimizing risk in research.

• List the persistent link for the article in your response. Refer to the Persistent Links and DOIs guide,

linked in Resources, to learn how to locate this information in the library databases.

• Cite all sources in APA style and provide an APA-formatted reference list at the end of your post.

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